Washingtonwho was based at the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, was among the most prominent African American leaders of his time.
Civil War Reconstruction failed to assure the full rights of citizens to the freed slaves. By the s, Ku Klux Klan terrorism, lynchings, racial-segregation laws, and voting restrictions made a mockery of the rights guaranteed by the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, which were passed after the Civil War.
The problem for African Americans in the early years of the 20th century was how to respond to a white society that for the most part did not want to treat black people as equals.
Three black visionaries offered different solutions to the problem. Washington argued for African Americans to first improve themselves through education, industrial training, and business ownership.
Equal rights would naturally come later, he believed. Du Bois agreed that self-improvement was a good idea, but that it should not happen at the expense of giving up immediate full citizenship rights.
Another visionary, Marcus Garvey, believed black Americans would never be accepted as equals in the United States. He pushed for them to develop their own separate communities or even emigrate back to Africa.
Washington was born a slave in Virginia in Early on in his life, he developed a thirst for reading and learning. After attending an elementary school for African-American children, Washington walked miles to enroll in Hampton Institute, one of the few black high schools in the South.
Armstrong, a former Union officer, had developed a highly structured curriculum, stressing discipline, moral character, and training for practical trades.
|W E B Du Bois | iridis-photo-restoration.com||Du Bois to Brown During the early decades of the 20th century, movements to resist such racial and gender discrimination gained strength in many countries. While a Pan-African movement emerged in response to European imperialismAfrican Americans developed various strategies to challenge racial discrimination in the United States.|
|Booker T & W.e.b | The Two Nations Of Black America | FRONTLINE | PBS||He received a Ph. Although Du Bois took an advanced degree in history, he was broadly trained in the social sciences; and, at a time when sociologists were theorizing about race relations, he was conducting empirical inquiries into the condition of blacks.|
|Donate Now||She was descended from DutchAfrican and English ancestors. Tom briefly served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary Warwhich may have been how he gained his freedom during the 18th century.|
|W.E.B. Du Bois | Biography, The Souls of Black Folk, & Facts | iridis-photo-restoration.com||We want to be treated as men. And we shall win.|
Following his graduation from Hampton, for a few years Washington taught elementary school in his hometown. InGeneral Armstrong invited him to return to teach at Hampton.
A year later, Armstrong nominated Washington to head a new school in Tuskegee, Alabama, for the training of black teachers, farmers, and skilled workers. Washington designed, developed, and guided the Tuskegee Institute.
It became a powerhouse of African-American education and political influence in the United States. He used the Hampton Institute, with its emphasis on agricultural and industrial training, as his model.
Washington argued that African Americans must concentrate on educating themselves, learning useful trades, and investing in their own businesses. Hard work, economic progress, and merit, he believed, would prove to whites the value of blacks to the American economy.
Washington believed that his vision for black people would eventually lead to equal political and civil rights. In the meantime, he advised blacks to put aside immediate demands for voting and ending racial segregation.
In his famous address to the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta, Georgia, Washington accepted the reality of racial segregation.
He insisted, however, that African Americans be included in the economic progress of the South. Washington declared to an all-white audience, "In all things social we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress. Recognized by whites as the spokesman for his people, Washington soon became the most powerful black leader in the United States.
He had a say in political appointments and which African-American colleges and charities would get funding from white philanthropists. He controlled a number of newspapers that attacked anyone who questioned his vision. Washington considered himself a bridge between the races. But other black leaders criticized him for tolerating racial segregation at a time of increasing anti-black violence and discrimination.
Washington did publicly speak out against the evils of segregation, lynching, and discrimination in voting. He also secretly participated in lawsuits involving voter registration tests, exclusion of blacks from juries, and unequal railroad facilities.
By the time Booker T. Washington died insegregation laws and racial discrimination were firmly established throughout the South and in many other parts of the United States. This persistent racism blocked the advancement of African Americans. Du Bois was born in Massachusetts in He attended racially integrated elementary and high schools and went off to Fiske College in Tennessee at age 16 on a scholarship.
Du Bois completed his formal education at Harvard with a Ph. Du Bois briefly taught at a college in Ohio before he became the director of a major study on the social conditions of blacks in Philadelphia. He concluded from his research that white discrimination was what kept African Americans from good-paying jobs.The year was and America was still feeling the aftershocks of the Civil Rights Movement, the murder, some eight years earlier, of Martin Luther King Jr., and the end of the Vietnam War.
A movement to change the face of politics, this group later became the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, possibly the most influential civil rights group in American history.
DuBois became the NAACP's research and publicity director. Reconstruction and the Debate Between Booker T.
Washington and WEB Dubois. series of laws regarding black population in the South during and after Civil War; certain legal rights: recognized black marriages, ownership of property, limited access to the courts What was Dubois’s idea about Industrial Education and the Talented Ten? Start studying Combo with "Reconstruction and the Debate Between Booker T.
Washington and WEB Dubois" and 1 other. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. American civil rights movement: Du Bois to Brown During the early decades of the 20th century, movements to resist such racial and gender discrimination gained strength in many countries.
While a Pan-African movement emerged in response to European imperialism, African Americans developed various strategies to challenge racial . A diverse body–Lillian Wald, WEB DuBois, Archibald Grimke, Ida B. Wells, Henry Moskowitz, Mary White Ovington, William English Walling and Oswald Garrison Villard were among the first of 60 to lead the charge for civil rights.