Petersburg GovernorateRussian Empire.
Neo-Colonialism The collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of the 's was a great blow to the hopes of revolutionaries. Why did it collapse? The primary causes were political and economic and they were the result of the culture of war. The immediate cause of the Soviet collapse was economic, as the Soviet Union lost the arms race and international competition with the West.
The United States was able to profit from its imperialist exploitation of other countries, while socialism could only lose economically in that competition. By the end, the ruble collapsed as Soviet consumers turned to imports to satisfy their needs.
They could not buy a good pair of leather boots or a good television set or a computer made in the Soviet Union, because all the boots and the electronics were swallowed up by military procurement. And, needless to say, there were no quality goods to export in order to balance imports.
Economic factors were linked to political and psychological factors. As the Soviet economist Latsis said at the time, "the gloomy background of the worsening market situation Another factor was the lack of honest information, the secrecy and propaganda that is central to the culture of war.
As contradictions mounted the Soviet people became more and more cynical about the propaganda of government-controlled media.
It was common to hear the Russian people say that you could find truth anywhere except in Pravda and the news anywhere except in Izvestia. This was exacerbated by the propaganda warfare carried out by the West in Radio Free Europe and by dissidents in self-published Samizdat.
Secrecy and distortion of information have disastrous economic as well as political effects.
As explained in a article "Secrecy and restricted movement, the hallmarks of militarism and bureaucracy, pervaded Soviet society when I was working there. They hampered the work of the scientific institutes where I was located, even though they were not doing military research.
As a result, I found that all levels of the system, from institutes to ministries, were isolated from each other, both by barriers to communication and by an attitude that one should mind one's own business. As the article by Latsis put it, "The glitter of [the war-time economic] miracle blinded us for decades, and the command-administrative methods of the extensively developing economy took firm root in the country.
In other words, the Soviet Union had developed its own military-industrial complex. Economic indicators were routinely suppressed or falsified to the point that when the final economic collapse was imminent there were no published figures to indicate the points of weakness.
For example, as Latsis remarksthe government did not even admit until that it was running a budget deficit. As a result the government had no way to take remedial action. All of these factors accumulated on top of a profound alienation of the Soviet people that had grown up over the years as the country remained in the grips of the culture of war.
In the Stalin years, not only was the economy devoted to the arms race, but information was controlled in the form of propaganda and dissidents were sent to labor camps.
People did not feel free to discuss this, and most people did not participate in governance. Although women were more equal in the work force than in the West, at the top the Communist Party was all men. Photos of the ruling Politburo showed old men covered with war medals like so many old military generals.The double date was frequent in old Russian writings and represents the difference between the Gregorian calendar in use in Western Europe and the Julian calendar which Russia tenaciously observed.
Russia was, in consequence, thirteen days behind the rest of the world, in a calendar sense. Request a free trial of; Gas Daily. Whether a risk manager, research analyst, trader or broker, Platts Gas Daily brings you crucial competitive intelligence across .
Lost Kingdom: The Quest for Empire and the Making of the Russian Nation [Serhii Plokhy] on iridis-photo-restoration.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. From a preeminent scholar of Eastern Europe, a new history of Russian imperialism In The Russian Empire was, predominantly, a rural society spread over vast spaces.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which the Empire failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor iridis-photo-restoration.com Roman Empire lost the strengths that had allowed it to exercise effective control over its Western provinces; modern historians. The Midterm Elections are fast approaching. ABC News brings you in-depth coverage and breaking political news, as voters determine the Senate and House of Representatives. The Decline of the Russian Empire 17 March The following is an interview with Rein Taagepera, professor emeritus of the University of Tartu, in Estonia, and the University of California, Irvine.
In , 80% of the people were peasants. Soviet historiography proclaimed that the Russian Empire of the 19th century was characterized by systemic crisis, which impoverished the workers and peasants and culminated in the revolutions of the early 20th century.
The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Empire [Brian Crozier] on iridis-photo-restoration.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. For more than 80 years, the Soviet Empire cast an ever-lengthening shadow across the face of the world.
Lenin's ruthless legacy consumed Eastern Europe and toppled governments on virtually every continent. Yet at the moment when the Empire appeared to have reached its zenith.
The Roman Empire emerged from the Roman Republic when Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar transformed it from a republic into a monarchy. Rome reached its zenith in the 2nd century, then fortunes slowly declined with many revivals and restorations along the way.