Introduction Participant observation, for many years, has been a hallmark of both anthropological and sociological studies.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. These sites provide new opportunities for researchers, but raise new challenges for Institutional Review Boards IRBs that review these research protocols.
The purpose of this article was to review the common risks inherent in social media research and consider how researchers can consider these risks when writing research protocols.
We focused this article on three common research approaches: Concomitant with these research approaches, we gave particular attention to the issues pertinent to SMW research, including privacy, consent, and confidentiality.
After considering these challenges, we outlined key considerations for both researchers and reviewers when creating or reviewing SMW IRB protocols. Our goal in this article was to provide a detailed examination of relevant ethics and regulatory issues for both researchers and those who review their protocols.
The observation was conducted in the public place, the park. The time of the observation was three hours from am to pm. The observation focused on men and women to uncover specificities of their gender relations as well as individual behaviour of participants of the study. Ethics of Social Media Research: Common Concerns and Practical Considerations. Megan A. Moreno, MD, MSEd, MPH, 1 Natalie Goniu, 1 A key issue in considering observational research using social media is whether the proposed project meets the criteria as human subjects research, and if so, what type of review is needed. Exempt research. Participant observation is a common research method that sociologists use to collect data and study groups, social problems and phenomena. Participant observation is a common research method that sociologists use to collect data and study groups, social problems and phenomena.
Introduction Social media Websites SMWs provide opportunities for user participation in the creation and display of multimedia data. These popular Websites are increasingly emerging as valuable research tools.
There are several aspects of SMWs that provided unique advantages to researchers. First, SMWs present innovative opportunities to examine the displayed online behaviors and beliefs in a context that is naturalistic, as it is part of the participants' daily lives.
Second, SMWs allow a researcher to reach out and conduct studies within the populations that may be hard to reach in traditional research, such as underserved populations.
Finally, in many cases, this research may be feasible and low cost, as it can be conducted from the researcher's office using a SMW. SMWs present many new opportunities for research, but also raise new challenges for the Institutional Review Boards IRBs that review these research protocols.
It remains difficult to determine what risks and privacy expectations are unique to the SMW realm, and what challenges can be addressed by modifications of known and understood risks inherent in research. As of yet, there is little-to-no guidance from federal regulations or institutions, and very little existing literature, on how an IRB should review research protocols involving SMWs.
Concomitant with these research approaches, we gave particular attention to issues regarding privacy, consent, and confidentiality. After considering these challenges, we conclude this article by providing key considerations for researchers and reviewers when creating or reviewing SMW IRB protocols.
Our goal in this article was not to dictate the rules and regulations for IRBs, but rather to open discussion and outline relevant issues for both researchers and those who review their protocols. Throughout this article, we have framed our discussion around four SMWs that are currently popular: Studies of these SMWs illustrate both similarities and differences in social media research techniques and concomitant potential IRB concerns.
Twitter is an SMW in which profile owners i. Twitter studies as of yet have gathered data regarding individual patient experiences in areas such as pain and smoking cessation, as well as population-level data regarding events such as pandemics.
Videos may be user-generated or professionally made. Studies to date have included evaluation of health information within the YouTube videos, 5 assessment of YouTube as a medical teaching tool, 6 and use of YouTube to evaluate an individual's behavior or even symptoms.
This site focuses on user's professional identities. Studies to date include basic analyses of the LinkedIn users, comparing them to the Facebook users.
We have focused on three specific research approaches that researchers and IRBs may encounter when considering federal and institutional regulations that involve SMWs: For each of these, we considered relevant risks and framed those risks within the context of traditional research as appropriate.
Because the issues regarding privacy concerns in observational research may apply to the other two research approaches, we address the observational research first.Participant observation In participant observation the observer participates in ongoing activities and records observations.
Participant observation extends beyond naturalistic observation because the observer is a "player" in the action. Participant Observation as Ethnography or Ethnography as Participant Observation in Organizational Research.
The Palgrave Handbook of Research Design in Business and Management, This essay will look at difference between to research methods; Case Study and Observation.
|Naturalistic Observation||Gender and Relationship essay The observation was conducted in the public place, the park.|
Case study is the understanding of the complex issues or can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research. It is an in-depth study of an individual, group, incident or community. This research method was pioneered by anthropologists Bronislaw Malinowski and Franz Boas but was adopted as a primary research method by many sociologists affiliated with the Chicago School of Sociology in the early twentieth iridis-photo-restoration.com, participant observation, or ethnography, is a primary research method practiced by qualitative sociologists around the world.
Non-participant Observation involves observing participants without actively participating. This option is used to understand a phenomenon by entering the community or social system involved, while staying separate from the activities being observed.
Observation Research Project. This is one of the two research papers you will be writing in this course. You may work in groups of two, but each of you must write your own paper. The paper must contain all the parts of a research paper: This doesn’t mean you have to wait until the observation is finished to start writing; you can plan.