A Character Analysis of Steven Rojack In almost every genre of literature, there is the classic antagonist, and the classic protagonist. When examining these characters, there are certain guidelines which authors follow.
Like religion, sex, and art, literature is protected by taboos both numerous and powerful. To the cultured mind the study of the writer as a professional man, of the literary work as a means of communication, and of the reader as a consumer of cultural goods is vaguely sacrilegious.
Such a revulsion is all the more surprising, as the concept of literature first appeared to describe a sociocultural fact, not an aesthetic one. In fact, social consciousness and a sense of solitude often coexisted in the literary attitude of the nineteenth century, but the contradiction between them was not obvious to the romantics, some of the greatest of whom—such as Byron and Hugo—were keenly aware of their moral solitude yet never ignored the strong ties which united them with society.
Nevertheless, literary criticism more and more shifted its emphasis from a collective to an individual outlook.
Carlyle, indid stress the effects of literary reputation on a writer, but his representation of the man of letters as a hero can be considered the turning point of the movement from presociological to psychological criticism.
Meanwhile, in Germany the new science of philology had awakened an interest in form and style which eventually opened a new approach to literature through the aesthetic analysis of the work of art.
In the early twentieth century, Wilhelm Dilthey concretized this tendency into a doctrine which gave birth to a strong antisociological current which reigned almost unchallenged in many countries under the various shapes of formalism,Stilforschung, and aesthetic structuralism.
France, however, remained steadfastly committed to the historical positivism of Taine. Early attempts Sociology long avoided the difficult job of analyzing literature. When sociologists—most of them with a philosophical, not a literary turn of mind— touched on the subject, they included it in the wider categories of art, leisure, or communication, thus ignoring the specific characteristics of literature.
Even Marx and Engels were extremely prudent in their handling of literary problems. Plekhanov, who was the first to offer a Marxist and a sociological theory of artdid not treat literature satisfactorily.
There was a sociological tradition in Russian literary criticism. It was handed down from Belinski, a contemporary of Carlyle, through Pisarev, a contemporary of Taine, to the antiformalist critics of the Soviet era. Most Marxists nowadays think this view much too simplistic to account for the complex nature of the literary phenomenon.
A true sociology of literature appeared only when literary critics and historians, starting from literature as a specific reality, tried to answer sociological questions by using current sociological methods.
The difficulty was to formulate the questions. By the time an interest in sociology was awakened among literary specialists the habit had been formed of working on the writer as an individual or on the literary work as an isolated phenomenon but seldom on their relationship to the reading public.
As early as the German L. Schiicking had tried to give an outline of a sociology of literary taste, but his attempt found little response. On the other hand, when the Hungarian Gyorgy Lukacsafter his conversion to a rather personal brand of Marxism, tried to base a method of critical analysis on a parallelism between the aesthetic patterns of the work of art and the contemporary economic structures of society, he certainly initiated a new type of sociological investigation in literary criticism The Lukacsian sociology of literature is widely followed in eastern and western Europe, particularly in France, where Lucien Goldmann may be said to have brought it to a high point of effectiveness ; It opened wide and numerous vistas on the social nature of literature, and no further studies on the subject can ignore it.
Yet, although Lukacs and his followers take into account society as the reality behind the appearances of literature, they still consider the work of art as an end in itself and neglect the part of the reader in literary communication.
Indeed, they as much as ignore the very notion of literary communication. Literary communication Early sociological investigation in literature was stalemated by the antinomy between the ontological and phenomenological conceptions of literary criticism.
Only when existentialism threw a new light on things was it possible to achieve a break-through. An unread book is nothing but a handful of soiled paper. From this premise the inference is that the literary phenomenon cannot be the work of art itself, but rather the meeting and sometimes the clashing of two free acts, one of production and the other of consumption, with all their effects and side effects on moral and social relations.
There is always another man in literature: In fact, no fully satisfactory result may be obtained in investigating literature with sociological methods if one does not start from a clear idea of what in literary phenomena is fundamentally social. There is danger in submitting the written product of the mind to purely aesthetic criteria.Antigone By Sophocles Essay.
Tragedy in Antigone by Sophocles and Blackfish Antigone and Nora, who challenge societies’ traditional expectations in different ways. Antigone defies and challenges the rules of her uncle and King of Thebes, Creon.
is one of the most controversial tragic characters in classic literature. The war in her. Essay Is Okonkwo a Tragic Hero Jennifer Leung 10 English Literature April 7, Ms. Britte Is Okonkwo a tragic heroOkonkwo is the protagonist in Chinua Achebe’s novel Things Fall Apart.
He was one of the Igbo people and he was also one of the most important men in his society. Nov 18, · However, according to Johnson, Christie, and Yawkey, (), "play is an extremely difficult concept to define -- there are distinct definitions listed in the Oxford English Dictionary!" Some adults think play is trivial while others believe play .
Modern Literature. Article (PDF The sections on the English novel and on Irish poetry have been omitted this year; publications in these areas will be covered in YWES Oct 19, · Emmanuel Roberts English Spring Research Paper Antigone Introduction Greek playwright Sophocles wrote the last play in the Theban Trilogy, Antigone, around n B.C.
The Theban Trilogy consists of Oedipus Rex (Oedipus the king); Oedipus at Colonus, and Antigone, but the play considered the last of the three was, ironically, written first. The speaker discerns "Infinite passion, and the pain / Of finite hearts that yearn" in this author's poem "Two in the Campagna." That poem appears in a collection of this author's poetry beginning with "Love Among the Ruins," Men and Women.